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Briefly outline the AC-DC converter’s working concept and circuit features.

Many real-world applications rely on ac to dc converter power supplies. Power electronics use AC-DC converters, which convert alternating current to direct current. The power supply’s AC voltage must be converted to DC.

Rectification transforms AC current to DC current at the load end connector. Transformers reduce AC power supply voltage to improve DC power supply operating range.

AC and DC electricity (DC)

AC:Alternating current flows forward and backward. AC is a nonzero-frequency current whose direction changes frequently. Alternators, generators, etc.

DC:Direct current’s amplitude and polarity don’t vary. Direct current flows in one direction through a conductor. 0 Hz. Electric cells, batteries, DC generators, etc. produce it.

DC Circuit

Simple step to convert AC to DC

The following quickly introduces the 230V AC-5V DC converter used in the power circuit.

Lowering Voltage

When powering a long distance, the voltage must be increased. Low-power equipment also needs lower voltage. Step-up transformers boost voltage and step-down transformers decrease it.

Step-down transformers convert 230V AC to 12V AC for a 12V transformer. The RMS value and peak value can be calculated by multiplying the square root of 2 with the RMS value, which is 17V.

This step-down device’s 17V AC output must be converted to DC and then stepped down to 5V DC. This device converts 17V AC to DC.

AC-to-DC converter

The load side AC-to-DC converter converts AC to DC electricity. Half-wave, full-wave, and bridge rectifiers exist.


Four diodes comprise a full-bridge rectifier. Forward-biased diodes only conduct electricity in one way. It’s closed in reverse prejudice.

Diodes D2 and D4 are on during the positive half cycle. Diodes D1 and D3 are on during the negative half cycle. So, the AC input becomes DC output. The DC output is pulsed, not pure DC.

DC waveform

Pulsating DC should be converted to pure DC. Most circuits require capacitors. Capacitors store energy as the input voltage rises. The capacitor’s energy is released when the input voltage decreases to zero. This capacitor charging and discharging mechanism converts pulsing DC to pure DC.

Set DC voltage

Finally, a voltage regulator IC is employed to stabilize the output voltage. DC regulator IC’s last two digits (XX) denote output voltage. A 7805 regulator IC may limit the output voltage to 5V, and a 7809 can limit it to 9V.

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